Manual Voices in the Storm: Confederate Rhetoric, 1861-1865 (War and the Southwest Series, No 8)

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Karen E. Voices in the Storm examines the significance of oratory in the Confederacy and also explores the nuances and subtle messages within Confederate speeches. Examining metaphor, argument, and figures of speech, Fritz finds some surprising shifts within the Civil War South. Her research indicates that four years of bloody conflict caused southerners to reconsider beliefs about their natural environment, their honor, their slaves, and their northern opponents. Between and southerners experienced shattering calamities as they waged their unsuccessful struggle for independence.

Confederate orators began the war by outlining a detailed and idealized portrait of their nation and its people. Ultimately, Porter called on General Sherman to rescue him from his predicament. General Grant radically altered his strategy after this near disaster.

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Over the next few weeks, Fendall and Strausz were left to wonder what would be Grant's next move. On April 1, they went on a reconnaissance "and saw a few rebels. Mitchell of Indiana related in confidence that if "Grant and Porter did not 'do something' this month that they would be superceded. Some doubt whether he has plans. Fendall was with General Sherman that evening at a point on the peninsula below the town and hailed each vessel as it passed.

Strausz, whose normal duties included accompanying Porter wherever he went, had been told not to accompany him that evening because of the danger.

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Strausz stayed ashore because he saw no reason to pass the batteries only "for the sake of passing the batteries. Gerdes passed this letter on to Bache who responded to Gerdes: " Write at once to Mr.

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Strausz and show him that credit is easily lost as well as won. It was a blunder not to stick by the Admiral and it will be a still worse one if after making the first he applies to come home. Not only Bache, but Fendall, was irritated by Strausz at this point. The purpose of this attack was to prevent the Confederates from reinforcing Grand Gulf which was under attack by Grant's forces south of Vicksburg. Fendall allowed his deep dislike of both Strausz and photographer Kroehl Kroehl's photographic mission was a failure as he was unable to get good results to show through in a report to Gerdes: "I am sorry to say that neither Kroehl nor Strausz was hit yesterday.

They will have another chance today Strausz and Kroehl survived as did Fendall. Over the next month, there was little work required as the main thrust of the Vicksburg Campaign followed Grant's easterly march to Jackson, Mississippi, and then back to the west and the siege of Vicksburg. In late May, Strausz helped position some mortar boats for Porter; and then on June 6, all of the Coast Survey party reported to General Grant for duty mapping for his left wing as he approached Vicksburg.

Fendall became sick in camp and took no part in the mapping. Strausz, Kroehl, and a Lieutenant Farrell of the Navy produced a sketch map of the Union lines, Confederate defenses, and topography of the countryside. This sketch was made from horseback often within yards of the Confederate lines. Farrell received two minor wounds during this work. Strausz reported that his map was "all that was required by the Chief Engineer of Genl Grant's staff, and all that could be done in the time it was required and under the circumstances All his distances are estimated.

He and Farrell rode over the country with a compass in their hands and drew it. He got furious when I told him that his was no map Fortunately for Fendall and Strausz, the fall of Vicksburg was near and they would no longer have to torment each other. Fendall the perfectionist, and Strausz, who had the talent to produce what was expedient, soon parted. Strausz left almost immediately after the Confederate surrender on July 4, , while Fendall stayed on to finish the survey of Confederate gun emplacements and other defenses of Vicksburg that could not be observed prior to the Union occupation of the town.

Fendall became sick again and departed for the East on July 17 without finishing this work. Fendall's precise surveys and maps and Strausz's combat reconnaissance sketches each served the Union cause. Each of the men displayed courage in performing work in the face of hostile fire. Although Porter never mentioned the animosity between the two men in his letters to Bache, he most assuredly was aware of the conflict between them.

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It is a measure of Porter's leadership that he was able to look past this element and use each man for the work that accomplished the most good for the Union forces. Because of this, the Coast Survey played a critical part in assuring that "The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea Following Fendall's departure from the Vicksburg area, Porter wrote to him: "Permit me to express my thanks to you for the handsome manner in which you have conducted your duties while under my command, while surveying, making reconnaissances or in the rifle pits at Vicksburg Fendall and Strausz, in the difficult works in which they were engaged; and I feel much indebted to them for the willingness and ability manifested in any service required of them With many thanks to yourself for allowing me the use of your assistants, and hoping that you will always permit me to call on you for hydrographic assistants After recovering from his illness, Fendall reported to Gerdes, who was operating on the coast of Maine.

A series of letters between Bache and Gerdes beginning in September led to the return of Gerdes and Fendall to the Mississippi in the winter of On October 3, , Gerdes wrote Bache and suggested that the Coast Survey produce a war atlas of the Mississippi River activities as: "It is but due to the Navy and Army that a representation of those localities, which are forever identified with their names, should be preserved for a future generation in their present appearance This suggestion was reinforced by Rear Admiral Porter's desire to have the map of Vicksburg completed so "that copies would be ready at the opening of Congress.

Fendall was required to finish the Vicksburg map; recognizing his stormy nature, Bache previously told Gerdes to "not recommend anybody who will not work kindly with Mr. I appreciate highly the spirit and devotion to duty he has shown After receiving orders to proceed to the Mississippi, he arrived in Vicksburg on November 24 and finished there by December 4.

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Because Admiral Porter was away and had high regard for Fendall, Porter assigned his own quarters to him. My cabin is the most splendid affair that I have ever seen Although away from the frontlines and living in relative splendor, this duty was far from comfortable as Fendall related: "It is extremely cold here - the ground is covered with snow and the river is frozen several rods along each bank.

One of my hands has become frostbitten, from handling that infernally cold alhidade, but will be well enough to commence sounding when the weather moderates By January 20, the Mississippi River was totally frozen over from St. Louis to Cairo.

Voices in the storm: Confederate rhetoric, - Karen E. Fritz - Google книги

Prior to arriving in Cairo, Gerdes recruited three Coast Survey employees for duty on the Mississippi besides Fendall. In response to Gerdes' initial inquiry, Aid Thomas C. Bowie replied, "I would rather go with you than anyone else, but at the same time would say that I hope you will find work for me that is not directly in contact with the enemy.

Philip and was reacting to vivid memories of conducting that work under fire. Gerdes gave him no guarantee and he came along anyway. Nes and Aid J. Adamson joined the survey party. Over the next few weeks he conducted hydrography, current studies, and triangulation between Cairo and Mound City. In spite of the fact that the Mississippi was declared open for navigation by Union vessels, the Confederate forces did not necessarily agree.

Both guerilla forces and regular forces harassed Union shipping on a regular basis. Soon after arriving at Grand Gulf, a rumor circulated that the survey work was being done as a preliminary step to the building of fortifications. Agitated by this rumor, guerilla bands attacked on March 15 and Gerdes described the action: "We are here at work but continually harassed by guerillas and have to be extremely cautious. Yesterday and day before Mr. Bowie had to drive off a number of them 3 times by musketfire and one by the pounder of our little tug.

Because of guerilla activity, Assistant Gerdes was forced to modify his working arrangements from day to day. He described this work to Bache:. We have so far literally fought our way step by step, as we went along. In the morning we shell, we shell out from the CURLEW that part of the background where we intend to work during the day, then some 12 or 15 men fully armed are posted by an officer as pickets, who drive away any remaining stragglers by musketry and rifle shots. Bowie was fired upon by two men, only a few days ago; they were so near to him, that he could return three revolvor shots from a Colt pistol, but having no more charges than those, he had to retire During his work at Grand Gulf, Gerdes received a letter from Superintendent Bache with the information for Fendall that "he had met your father, who mentioned that he had not heard for a long time from you He always had the time to show interest in the family life of his Survey employees; if one of his young aids or assistants was not writing home, Bache would apply a prod to make sure the old folks were kept informed of his health and well-being.

Perhaps Clarence Fendall could have made the time to write home, but he had been occupied during the past few months with producing a map of the Red River for Rear Admiral Porter. At the conclusion of this expedition he wrote Gerdes from the mouth of the Red River:. These comprise two thirds of the heavy clads of the fleet.

Several Army officers have been arrested for abusing him During these actions, Confederate Major General Richard Taylor issued a totally unambiguous order, " My dispositions for the day are to Major General Banks did not desert Porter during this hour of need. An officer from Wisconsin, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bailey , 74 who was familiar with building dams for logging operations, suggested that a dam be built below the falls that would raise the water level sufficiently to float the heavy ironclads across.

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Work began on April 30 and was nearing completion when it broke eight days later. However, four vessels made it across the falls with the onrushing waters. Smaller wing dams were built in a short time which raised the water level enough to float his last few vessels over. Porter's fleet was saved and he was able to resume aggressive patrolling of the Mississippi River. In spite of the increased naval presence on the Mississippi, guerilla activity continued relatively unabated.

It received 6 full volleys from 12 guns and approximately 30 stray shots. Of these 6 struck the CURLEW, "3 of which were round shot of 6 pounds, penetrating the iron, but luckily having hit against oak knees, had spent their force and rolled on the gun deck without exploding The six pounders used by the rebels were all thrown by ricochet and whenever they fired a full volley, the balls danced upon the water and looked like hail After returning to Cairo, Gerdes wrote to Julius Hilgard, Assistant-in-Charge of the Coast Survey Office, about his trip north on the river that "after having been popped at constantly by guerillas" and "how the Rebels gave me on the way 5 or 6 parting salutes from 10 or 12 guns" that he had now had "almost enough of that game Besides completing a map of the Grand Gulf area, Gerdes also conducted a reconnaissance of the Mississippi from 4 miles below Rodney, Mississippi, to New Carthage, Louisiana.

He established that "all the distances on the river are overrated -- the estimates made them as long as possible, on account of freight, pilotage, etc. I would not hesitate to say that the distance from New Orleans to Cairo is considered generally miles longer than it actually is Palmer found that the distance from Fredericksburg to its mouth at Chesapeake Bay was miles instead of the miles reported by riverboat pilots.

Coast Survey operations on the Mississippi did much to improve the state of geographic knowledge of the Mississippi River region with an accompanying increase of efficiency in military operations as well as ramifications for future commercial development.