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All of these features had repercussions on the Spanish campaign.

Conquest of Last Maya Kingdom, Pt. 1 - Revolutions

Embroiled in these engrossing Peninsular events, Jones pays scant attention to affairs on a yet broader stage. During the seventeenth century, English freebooters invaded the forests of both eastern Yucatan and the southwestern corner of the Peninsula. Their raids together with rebellious acts of local Maya forced the southeastern Yucatecan colonial villa of Salamanca de Bacalar to relocate northwestward for sixty years.

The author's references to Bacalar and elsewhere imply this displacement but never explain it. But the broader scale is not the subject of the book. In its more circumscribed area of attention, the work conveys a rich understanding of Spanish machinations and the complexity of responses by natives who both abhorred the Spaniards and had a sophisticated understanding of their aims, gained through more than a century of watchful isolation. The events detailed do not end with the conquering invasion of the forests.

Article History

A more conclusive Spanish success was finally, if somewhat gradually, achieved in the eighteenth century. Another result of the author's propensity as an anthropologist may be his adoption of the orthography approved by the Academy of Mayan Languages of Guatemala for the spelling of Mayan words. Though no doubt an improvement in recording and writing, its use results in numerous changes from the common colonial spelling of names and titles and can Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.

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More than a is an well-written account with an exceptional bibliography and century later there would be some lackluster interest in the Itza a useful index. The book brings in sources from many disci- territories, but only from the margins. Hostilities to the Spanish plines and exposes the events of the nineteenth- and early-twen- were the rule, but so were internal conflicts.

While the Spanish tieth-century Maya world to new light. The lay- usbackin time to the first centuries after the Spanish incursions ered local and regional struggles were only exacerbated by the into the greater Peten. While the final conquest of the Itza Maya efforts of the Spanish. If Jones' assessment is correct, the Itza fu- was long delayed, and would have effectively persisted if it were ture was bleak on the eve of the conquest. Unnecessary brute roads to the Itza conquest. Geopolitics from Spain would even- strength and driving force brought down the last of the inde- tually play a major role in the development of the conquest de- pendent Maya of Mesoamerica.

The initial result was not a real sign. Coming from the north, Ursua would thrust and thrust victory but an exhaustive struggle for the Spaniards to keep again. Other efforts from the south and from the west would also themselves. Yes, they succeeded in the conquest, but the devas- make an effort, but would never meet the mark.

Ultimately it tation wrought by thefinalacts and the bitter results of their con- was the pretext of the Camino real that would create the ruse that trol was to mark the defeatist role that the Peten would play into would bring thecollapse of Nohpeten.

The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom - AbeBooks - Grant D. Jones:

Throughout the growing contact we gather that the Spanish Yet, as one looks at the story as brought forth in reflective de- entrances are all fraught with difficulties that are bom of the tail, there is much to appreciate i n the materials, testimonies, and European stratagem: travel with horse and firepower, unfamili- debates, and in the accounts as woven together in this challeng- arity of the tropics, and complete disregard for local knowledge.

Jones bases his account on an intimate knowledge of Still, they were able to penetrate, make contacts, gain interop- the archival repositories in New and Old Spain. We benefit from erations, and even return with information that would later pro- the repeated visits and reinterpretations that Jones himself vide staples for the final conquest. Information from the four winds was managed contextforthe documents and the testimonies that are related in from Nojpeten.

Knowledge of events in distant locations of the the text. At the outset we learn of the social and political struc- Yucatan and Guatemala was part of their information web. If we accept the population estimates given appear to be regular experiences of the Spanish as they pursued which exceed modern-day Japan, China, and India and that, as their goal.

Travel from the Itza Core to Merida, to Chetumal, to an undisclosed sanitary engineer indicated, each person pro- Tipu, to Kejach, to the Lacandon all give one the feeling that the duced one pound of solid waste per day, the daunting deposi- area transport networks were efficient if you were not armed and tional result could have offset the original fertility problems. We armored with horses. Information traveled great distances in re- are told in several sections that there is arable land around Rio cord times, even when compared to contemporary potentials.

Azul, but we know that there were no plows in the prehistoric While the story would be Ursua versus Soberanis, there was Americas. For some reason Adams also presents controversial hypotheses about the Ursua was driven and he would have the Peten. Maya as if they were proven facts. One such discussion is in re- The last section is most illustrative of the whole story as the gard to warfare and the assumption of standing armies.

Maya Civilization

Another, successful conquest leaves the Spanish as their own victims. Ur- of course, is with reference to the interpretations of swamp char- sua's drive to win Nojpeten left him without resources and reli- acteristics as agricultural features. We do a disservice to our pro- ant on a recalcitrant population divided by the frictions proceed- fession and the interested public when we do not present alterna- ing the "conquest.

Notable was the perception of food These discrepancies detract from the obvious merit of scarcity, while the local Maya were moving further away from Adam's work. It is unfortunate that there are such flaws in the their own burned villages. Even so, the constant raids the Span- presentation of data from Rio Azul as it is clear that the overall ish made along the margins of Lake Peten Itza and their success- documentation is good and the database behind the summary ful acquisition of foodstuff at all times of the year makes me voluminous.

The problems found in the volume may stem from wonder what kind of fields these were. Adams the outset that he wrote the bulk of the book inside one month or turns our thinking about the origins of the Itza Maya and brings perhaps in the manner in which the field research was truncated. Adam's contri- Rio Azul'splace in thegreater Peten was certainly influential.

Like the earlier books, Adam's book is a compilation of a major field endeavor in this one involves the work of many years and the reflection of which much compelling data were recovered. The research rep- much experience. Unlike the other two books, this volume is a resented by this contribution on Rio Azul is important and bears general overview drawing on the thoughts and perspectives of significantly on interpretations of the ancient Maya.

The settle- the author and relying only on selected references. These clear signs of success are well ex- ficient to gain a broad idea of the field endeavors that produced posed in the book and will play into our synthetic understanding the data behind this book.


The appendices are helpful and pro- of Maya civilization. Overall, the book represents a considered examination of nearly a decade of field research in the Maya forest of northern Guatemala, a difficult and often frustrating environment. Clovis Blade Technology. Michael B. The text is written in an accessible manner and tions from Blackwater Draw, New Mexico.

Anthony T.

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Philadelphia: University of Penn- tional Geographic coverage of the' 80s. Given the small size of sylvania Museum, The book suffers from unresolved contradictions, statements with- Folsom Lithic Technology: Explorations in Structure and out sufficient backup, and inaccuracies in the page reference of Variation. Daniel S. Amick, ed. Ann Arbor: International Mono- the index when used to try and compare issues between sections. Oregon State University Arguing that the site of Rio Azul was established for its strate- gic trading position as no other resources were obvious, Adams These volumes share in common an emphasis on Paleoameri- concedes that the river dries up and is impassable for up to four can prehistory and a focus on ancient technological systems months of the year.

Defense is posited and repeatedly used to de- used by late Ice Age peoples to adapt to late Pleistocene environ- scribe linear features on the southeast side of the city of Rio ments. My review will highlight each author's substantive con- Azul, while this conclusion can only be asserted as the structures tributions and theoretical focus. Collins presents the scribes the area as agriculturally poor, yet posits that the agricul- first systematic treatment of Clovis blades, which represents a tural strategies ultimately included trade in specialty crops sup- significant new contribution to American archaeology.

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