If sigma is given, the problem is standardized. If neither corr nor sigma is given, the identity matrix is used for sigma. This is the noncentral t-distribution needed for calculating the power of multiple contrast tests under a normality assumption. It is a location shifted version of the central t-distribution. This noncentral multivariate t distribution appears for example as the Bayesian posterior distribution for the regression coefficients in a linear regression.

In the central case both types coincide. This function involves the computation of central and noncentral multivariate t-probabilities with arbitrary correlation matrices. It involves both the computation of singular and nonsingular probabilities. Because of the randomization, the result for this algorithm slightly depends on.

Univariate problems are passed to pt. Genz, A. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation , 63 , — Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics , 11 , — Lecture Notes in Statistics, Vol. For example the distribution of product moment correlation coefficient obtained by Ali and Joarder is the same as that obtained by Fisher showing distribution robustness. Thus the t-test for testing significance of correlation is also robust Joarder Interested readers may go through Kelker , Cambanis, Huang and Hsu , Fang and Anderson , Kotz and Nadarajah and the references therein.

In this paper we justify an uncorrelated multivariate t-model as the model for sample and present a modest review of the most important theories developed recently for statistical analysis with this model. This paper is expected to attract young researchers to develop an organized and solid foundation for the statistical analysis with correlated t-model.

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We will discuss some of them in this section. The probability density function p. It is also worth mentioning that the uncorrelatedness of the components X 1 , X 2 ,. The joint p. However, recent interest is noticed in uncorrelated t-distributions. The p. Kelejian and Prucha proved that the tails of the uncorrelated t -model is relatively thicker than those of the independent t-model given by 2.

It may be remarked that observations in 2. A more general case would be to consider k-samples each of which X g1 , X g2 ,. The characteristic functions of the univariate and the multivariate t-distributions have been considered by many authors. The characteristic function of X following a multivariate t-distribution with p.

Watson, , p. Joarder and Ali, It follows from 3. It may be remarked that the characteristic function of X in 3.

### Samenvatting

Sutradhar, By the use of the characteristic function of X given by 3. The derivation of conditional covariance matrix discussed among others by Cambanis et. Much of the theoretical development are available in Fang and Anderson and Fang, Kotz and Ng For applications of such distributions we refer to Lange, Little and Taylor , Kibria and Haq a , Kibria and Saleh , Kotz and Nadarajah and the references therein.

Let Z have the multivariate t-distribution with p. Fang, Kotz and Ng, , In this section we outline how the covariance matrix of multivariate t-distribution can be derived by the above result. The degrees of freedom for the distribution of the linear combination remain same.

This result is similar to that for multivariate normal distribution. It follows from 2. The completion of integration in 4. Sutradhar and Ali, By the use of the mixture representation in 4.

See e. Joarder and Ali a and Joarder a, b.

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## Department of Statistics | NC State University

Since then many statisticians have tried to investigate the behavior of R for non-normal situations. Ali and Joarder proved that both null and non-null distribution of R remain robust in the entire class of elliptical distributions which accommodates the correlated t-distribution as a special case. The result has been generalized for multivariate elliptical distribution by Joarder and Ali b for the correlation matrix R.

For more on robustness of correlation see Joarder among others. But maximum likelihood estimators in this case are not appealing because most important properties of maximum likelihood estimators, follow from the independence of the observations which is not the case for the model in 2. The following derivation of T 2 -statistic is based on the mixture representation of multivariate t-distribution see e.

Khan By virtue of the mixture representation of 2.

It follows from 5. Khan considered the estimation of the mean vector of a multivariate t-distribution in the presence of uncertain prior information. Khan also investigated the effect of shape parameters for the shrinkage estimators of the mean vector of multivariate t-distribution. Some properties of shrinkage and the positive-rule shrinkage estimators were discussed by changing the value of the shape parameter. He also studied the relative performance of these estimators under different conditions. It is King who laid the rigorous mathematical foundation of linear regression analysis under broader distributional assumptions of spherical symmetry which includes uncorrelated t-distribution as a special case.

Prompted by the works of Zellner and King , many authors used uncor- related t-distribution for modeling real world data.

### Introduction

Lange, Little and Taylor applied uncorrelated t -distribution to a variety of situations. The null distribution of the usual F -statistic in a linear regression model under correlated t-distribution in 1. Sutradhar b, for a detailed proof. For the linear regression model with errors having an uncorrelated t-distribution, it is known Singh, that the usual least square estimator of the vector of regression coefficients is not only the maximum likelihood estimator but also the unique minimum variance estimator.

Singh also developed methods of estimation of error variance in linear regression models with errors having an uncorrelated t-distribution with unknown degrees of freedom. In most applied as well as theoretical research works, the error terms in linear models are assumed to be normally and independently distributed.

## Multivariate T-Distributions and Their Applications

However, such assumptions may not be appropriate in many practical situation for example, see Gnanadesikan, and Zellner It happens particularly if the error distribution has heavier tails. Books B. Inequalities for Multivariate Normal Distribution C. Inequalities via Dependence, Association, and Mixture F.

Inequalities via Majorization and Weak Majorization G. Distribution-Free Inequalities H. Applications I. Powered by. You are connected as.

## Multivariate T-Distributions and Their Applications

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